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বুধবার, ২১ সেপ্টেম্বর, ২০১৬

Narration কাকে বলে ? Narration বলতে কি বুঝায় ? Narration কত প্রকার ও কি কি ?

Narration (উক্তি) : কাহারো বক্তব্য বা কথাকেই Narration বা উক্তি বলে ।
 Narration এর প্রকারভেদ : Narration দুই প্রকার ।
 যথা :-
  1.  Direct Narration (প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি) 
  2.  Indirect Narration (পরোক্ষউক্তি) ।
Direct Narration (প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি) : বক্তা নিজের মুখ দিয়ে যা বলে তা হল Direct Narration বা প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি ।
 যেমন :- 
  • he says, "I am happy."
  • She said, "I write a letter."
  • He said, "I am reading."
  • Tania said, "I am not wrong"
  • Maha said, "I met Jesmine"
Indirect Narration (পরোক্ষ উক্তি) : বক্তার কথা যখন অন্য কেউ তার মত করে বলে, তখন তাকে Indirect Narration বা পরোক্ষ উক্তি বলে ।
 যেমন :-
  • He says that he is happy.
  • She said that she wrote a letter.
  • He said that he was reading.
  • Tania said that she was not wrong,
  • Maha said that she had met Jesmine.

সোমবার, ১৯ সেপ্টেম্বর, ২০১৬

Voice Change করার নিয়ম । কিভাবে Active Voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করা হয় ।


Active Voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করার General Rule : Active Voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন  করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসে । Active Voice এর মূল Verb এর Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপ হয় এবং Tense ও Passive Voice এর Subject অনুযায়ী Be Verb বসে ।

Tense অনুযায়ী Active Voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করার নিয়মাবলী :
Present Indefinite Tense
 গঠন : Present Indefinite Tense এ Active voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসবে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসবে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসবে। Passive Voice এর Subject এর Person ও Number অনুযায়ী তার পরে Be Verb,
am / is / are এর যেকোন একটি বসবে। এবং Active Voice এর মূল Verb টি Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপে বসবে।
গঠন প্রণালী  : Active Voice এর Object + am / is/ are + মূল Verb এর Past Participle রূপ + by + Active Voice এর Subject.
 যেমন :-
Active : I eat rice.
Passive : Rice is eaten by me.
Active : They play football.
Passive : Football is played by them.
Active : I see the man.
Passive : The man is seen by me.
Active : Mother cooks rice.
Passive : Rice is cooked by mother.
Active : We eat mango.
Passive : Mango is eaten by us.
Active : She reads Arabic.
Passive : Arabic is read by her.
Active : Mr Khan teaches English.
Passive : English is taught by Mr Khan.
Active : Lima makes tea.
Passive : Tea is made by Lima.
Active : Rony Reads a book.
Passive : A book is read by Rony.
Active : Rina makes basket.
Passive : Basket is made by Rina.



Past Indefinite Tense
 গঠন : Past Indefinite Tense এ Active voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসবে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসবে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসবে। Passive Voice এর Subject এর Person ও Number অনুযায়ী তার পরে Be Verb, was / were এর যেকোন একটি বসবে। এবং Active Voice এর মূল Verb টি Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপে বসবে।

 গঠন প্রণালী  : Active Voice এর Object + was / were + মূল Verb এর Past Participle রূপ + by + Active Voice এর Subject.
 যেমন :-

Active : I ate rice.
Passive : Rice was eaten by me.
Active : Rina wrote a letter.
Passive : A letter was written by Rina.
Active : She sang a song.
Passive : A song was sung by her.
Active : We did the work.
Passive : The work was done by us.
Active : Mother cooked food.
Passive : Food was cooked by mother.
Active : They played Cricket.
Passive : Cricket was played by them.
Active : The man sold the land.
Passive : The land was sold by the man.
Active : I knew them.
Passive : They were known by me.
Active : Police arrested the Criminals.
Passive : The Criminals were arrested by Police.
Active : Mr Khan taught the students.
Passive : The Students were taught by Mr Khan.


Future Indefinite Tense
 গঠন : Future Indefinite Tense এ Active voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসবে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসবে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসবে। Passive Voice এর Subject এর Person ও Number অনুযায়ী তার পরে Be Verb, shall be / will be এর যেকোন একটি বসবে। এবং Active Voice এর মূল Verb টি Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপে বসবে।

 গঠন প্রণালী  : Active Voice এর Object + shall be / will be + মূল Verb এর Past Participle রূপ + by + Active Voice এর Subject.
 যেমন :-
Active : I shall write a letter.
Passive : A letter will be written by me.
Active : Swapan will support me.
Passive : I shall be supported by Swapan.
Active : Tania will make tea.
Passive : Tea will be made by Tania.
Active : Rana will write a story.
Passive : A story will be written by Rana.
Active : Father will buy a cow.
Passive : A cow will be bought by father.
Active : She will learn the lesson.
Passive : The lesson will be learnt by her.
Active : Ema will sing a song.
Passive : A song will be sung by Ema.
Active : we shall play football.
Passive : Football will be played by us.
Active : mother will cook rice.
Passive : Rice will be cooked by Mother.
Active : Ali  will catch fish.
Passive : Fish will be caught by Ali.


 Present Continuous Tense
 গঠন : Present Continuous Tense এ Active voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসবে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসবে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসবে। Passive Voice এর Subject এর Person ও Number অনুযায়ী তার পরে Be Verb, am being / is being / are being এর যেকোন একটি বসবে। এবং Active Voice এর মূল Verb টি Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপে বসবে।

 গঠন প্রণালী  : Active Voice এর Object + am being / is being / are being + মূল Verb এর Past Participle রূপ + by + Active Voice এর Subject.
 যেমন :-
Active : We are eating mango.
Passive : Mango is being eaten by us.
Active : Mother is cooking rice.
Passive : Rice is being cooked by Mother.
Active : Ali is catching fish.
Passive : Fish is being caught by Ali.
Active : He is reading a book.
Passive : A book is being read by him.
Active : The teacher is teaching the Students.
Passive : The Students are being taught by the teacher.
Active : She is writing a letter.
Passive : A letter is being written by her.
Active :  They are playing Cricket.
Passive : Cricket is being played by them.
Active : I am eating rice.
Passive : Rice is being eaten by me.
Active : They are reading English.
Passive : English is being read by them.
Active : They are doing the work.
Passive : The work is being done by them.



 Past Continuous Tense
 গঠন : Past Continuous Tense এ Active voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসবে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসবে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসবে। Passive Voice এর Subject এর Person ও Number অনুযায়ী তার পরে Be Verb, was being / were being  এর যেকোন একটি বসবে। এবং Active Voice এর মূল Verb টি Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপে বসবে।

গঠন প্রণালী  : Active Voice এর Object + was being / were being + মূল Verb এর Past Participle রূপ + by + Active Voice এর Subject.
 যেমন :-
Active : We were eating mango.
Passive : Mango was being eaten by us.
Active : Mother was cooking rice.
Passive : Rice was being cooked by Mother.
Active : Ali was catching fish.
Passive : Fish was being caught by Ali.
Active : He was reading a book.
Passive : A book was being read by him.
Active : The teacher was teaching the Students.
Passive : The Students were being taught by the teacher.
Active : She was writing a letter.
Passive : A letter was being written by her.
Active :  They were playing Cricket.
Passive : Cricket was being played by them.
Active : I was eating rice.
Passive : Rice was being eaten by me.
Active : They were reading English.
Passive : English was being read by them.
Active : They were doing the work.
Passive : The work was being done by them. 


  Future Continuous Tense
 গঠন : Future Continuous Tense এ Active voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসবে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসবে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসবে। Passive Voice এর Subject এর Person ও Number অনুযায়ী তার পরে Be Verb, shall be being / will be being  এর যেকোন একটি বসবে। এবং Active Voice এর মূল Verb টি Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপে বসবে।

 গঠন প্রণালী  : Active Voice এর Object + shall be being / will be being + মূল Verb এর Past Participle রূপ + by + Active Voice এর Subject.
 যেমন :-
Active : We shall be eating mango.
Passive : Mango will be being eaten by us.
Active : Mother will be cooking rice.
Passive : Rice will be being cooked by Mother.
Active : Ali will be catching fish.
Passive : Fish will be being caught by Ali.
Active : He will be reading a book.
Passive : A book will be being read by him.
Active : The teacher will be teaching the Students.
Passive : The Students will be being taught by the teacher.
Active : She will be writing a letter.
Passive : A letter will be being written by her.
Active :  They will be playing Cricket.
Passive : Cricket will be being played by them.
Active : I shall be eating rice.
Passive : Rice will be being eaten by me.
Active : They will be reading English.
Passive : English will be being read by them.
Active : They will be doing the work.
Passive : The work will be being done by them.


Present Perfect Tense
 গঠন : Present Perfect Tense এ Active voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসবে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসবে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসবে। Passive Voice এর Subject এর Person ও Number অনুযায়ী তার পরে Be Verb, have been / has been  এর যেকোন একটি বসবে। এবং Active Voice এর মূল Verb টি Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপে বসবে।

 গঠন প্রণালী  : Active Voice এর Object + have been / has been + মূল Verb এর Past Participle রূপ + by + Active Voice এর Subject.
 যেমন :-
Active : We have eaten mango.
Passive : Mango has been eaten by us.
Active : Mother has cooked rice.
Passive : Rice has been cooked by Mother.
Active : Ali has caught fish.
Passive : Fish has been caught by Ali.
Active : He has read a book.
Passive : A book has been read by him.
Active : The teacher has taught the Students.
Passive : The Students have been taught by the teacher.
Active : She has written a letter.
Passive : A letter has been written by her.
Active :  They have played Cricket.
Passive : Cricket has been played by them.
Active : I have eaten rice.
Passive : Rice has been eaten by me.
Active : They have read English.
Passive : English has been read by them.
Active : They have done the work.
Passive : The work has been done by them.


Past Perfect Tense
 গঠন : Past Perfect Tense এ Active voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসবে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসবে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসবে। Passive Voice এর Subject এর  পরে Be Verb, had been বসবে। এবং Active Voice এর মূল Verb টি Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপে বসবে।

 গঠন প্রণালী  : Active Voice এর Object + had been + মূল Verb এর Past Participle রূপ + by + Active Voice এর Subject.
 যেমন :-
Active : We had eaten mango.
Passive : Mango had been eaten by us.
Active : Mother had cooked rice.
Passive : Rice had been cooked by Mother.
Active : Ali had caught fish.
Passive : Fish had been caught by Ali.
Active : He had read a book.
Passive : A book had been read by him.
Active : The teacher had taught the Students.
Passive : The Students had been taught by the teacher.
Active : She had written a letter.
Passive : A letter had been written by her.
Active :  They had played Cricket.
Passive : Cricket had been played by them.
Active : I had eaten rice.
Passive : Rice had been eaten by me.
Active : They had read English.
Passive : English had been read by them.
Active : They had done the work.
Passive : The work had been done by them.


Future Perfect Tense
গঠন : Future Perfect Tense এ Active voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Active Voice এর Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হয়ে বসবে এবং Active Voice এর Subject টি Passive Voice এ Object হয়ে বসবে এবং তার পূর্বে by বসবে। Passive Voice এর Subject এর Person ও Number অনুযায়ী তার পরে Be Verb,shall have been /will have been  এর যেকোন একটি বসবে। এবং Active Voice এর মূল Verb টি Passive Voice এ Past Participle রূপে বসবে।

 গঠন প্রণালী  : Active Voice এর Object +shall have been / will have been+ মূল Verb এর Past Participle রূপ + by + Active Voice এর Subject.
 যেমন :-
Active : We shall have eaten mango.
Passive : Mango will have been eaten by us.
Active : Mother will have cooked rice.
Passive : Rice will have been cooked by Mother.
Active : Ali will have caught fish.
Passive : Fish will have been caught by Ali.
Active : He will have read a book.
Passive : A book will have been read by him.
Active : The teacher will have taught the Students.
Passive : The Students will have been taught by the teacher.
Active : She will have written a letter.
Passive : A letter will have been written by her.
Active :  They will have played Cricket.
Passive : Cricket will have been played by them.
Active : I shall have eaten rice.
Passive : Rice will have been eaten by me.
Active : They will have read English.
Passive : English will have been read by them.
Active : They will have done the work.
Passive : The work will have been done by them.


শুক্রবার, ১৬ সেপ্টেম্বর, ২০১৬

Case কাকে বলে ? Case বলতে কি বুঝায় ? Case কত প্রকার ও কি কি ?


Case এর সংজ্ঞা : কোন Sentence Verb এর সাথে সেই Sentence এ ব্যবহৃত Noun বা Pronoun এর যে সম্পর্ক থাকে তাকে Case বা কারক বলে ।
 যেমন :
  • Noman caught a bird - নোমান একটি পাখি ধরিয়াছিল ।
  • She has a doll - তাহার একটি পুতুল আছে ।
  • Rony did the work - রনি কাজটি করিয়াছিল ।
  • Fateha reads Arabic - ফাতেহা আরবী পড়ে ।
উপরের Sentence গুলোর প্রথমটিতে caught verb এর সহিত Noman এবং bird এর, দ্বিতীয় sentence  এ has verb এর সহিত she এবং doll এর, তৃতীয় sentence এ did verb এর সহিত Rony এবং the work এর এবং চতুর্থ sentence এ read verb এর সহিত Fateha এবং Arabic এর সম্পর্ক রয়েছে । এই সম্পর্ককেই Case বলে ।
Case এর প্রকারভেদ : Case চার প্রকার ।
যথা :-
  1. Nominative Case ( কর্তৃকারক ) 
  2. Objective Case ( কর্মকারক )
  3. Possessive Case ( সম্বন্ধ পদ )
  4. Vocative Case ( সম্বোধন পদ )
Nominative Case ( কর্তৃকারক ) : যে Noun বা Pronoun , Sentence এর Verb এর কার্য সম্পাদন করে তাকে Nominative Case বলে ।
যেমন :
  • Fateha reads Arabic -  ফাতেহা আরবী পড়ে ।
  • They play football - তাহারা ফুটবল খেলে ।
  • Rony goes to school - রনি স্কুলে যায় ।
  • Ritu drinks milk - রিতু দুধ পান করে ।
Objective Case ( কর্মকারক ) : যদি কোন Noun বা Pronoun কোন transitive Verb অথবা Preposition এর Object হয় তখন তাকে Objective Case বলে ।
যেমন :
  • Fateha reads Arabic - ফাতেহা আরবী পড়ে ।
  • They play football - তাহারা ফুটবল খেলে ।
  • Ritu drinks milk - রিতু দুধ পান করে ।
  • I know him  - আমি তাহাকে চিনি ।                       
     
Possessive Case ( সম্বন্ধ পদ ) : Sentence এ অবস্থিত কোন Noun বা Pronoun এর সাথে অন্য কোন Noun বা Pronoun এর যে সম্বন্ধ বা অধিকার প্রকাশ করে তাকে Possessive Case বলে ।
যেমন :
  • Tania's pen is red -  তানিয়ার কলমটি লাল ।
  • This is Rony's bag - এই হয় রনির ব্যাগ ।
  • Rina's book is new - রিনার বইটি নতুন ।
  • Tina's sharee is nice - তিনার শাড়ীটি সুন্দর ।

Vocative Case ( সম্বোধন পদ ) : যে Noun কে সম্বোধন করে কিছু বলা হয় তাকে Vocative Case বলে ।
যেমন :
  • Hello ! How are you ? - এই যে ! কেমন আছ ?
  • Hey Tanim ! What are you doing ? - এই তিনা ! কি করিতেছ ?
  • Lina Come here - লিনা এখানে এসো ।
  • Ladies and gentlemen, the meeting is over  - ভদ্র মহিলা এবং মহোদয়গন, সভা শেষ হয়েছে ।