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মঙ্গলবার, ২৯ মার্চ, ২০১৬

Right Form of Verbs বা ক্রিয়ার সঠিক রূপ । এবং Right Form of Verbs এর নিয়মাবলী

 Verb বলতে কোন কাজ করাকে বঝায় । Verb কে Sentence এর প্রাণ বলা হয় । তাই Verb এর সঠিক Form জানা আবশ্যক । নিন্মে Right Form of Verb এর নিয়মাবলী ও উদাহরণ দেওয়া হল ।


Rule-1. চিরন্তন সত্য অথবা কাহারো অভ্যাসগত কাজ বুঝালে তখন Verb এর Present Indefinite Tense হয় । 
যেমন- 

   Q.  The Sun - (rise) in the east.
    A. The Sun rises in the east.
    Q.The Sun - (set) in the west.
    A. The Sun sets in the west.
    Q. The Earth - (be) round.
    A. The Earth is round.
    Q. Every morning she - (walk) by the river side.
    A. Every morning She walks by the river side.
    Q. The cow - (live) on grass.
    A. The cow lives on grass.


Rule-2. কোন নিদিষ্ট সময়েয় উল্লেখ থাকেনা এরকম Sentence এ যদি always, regularly, sometimes, often, generally, daily, everyday, occasionally, usually, normally ইত্যাদি থাকে তহলে sentence টি Present Indefinite Tense হয় । যেমন-

  Q. Tania always - (laugh) in the class.
  A. Tania always laughs in the class.
  Q. Fateha - (prepare) her lessons regularly.
  A.  Fateha prepares her lessons regularly. 
  Q. Sometimes he - (come) here.
  A, Sometimes he comes here.
  Q. Mohima - (go)  to school daily.
  A. Mohima goes to school daily.

 Rule-3. Sentence এ যদি now বা at this moment থাকে , তাহলে Verb এর  Present Continuous Tense হয় । অর্থাৎ বর্তমানে কোন কাজ চলিতেছে এরূপ বুঝালে Verb এর Present Continuous Tense হয় ।
যেমন -

  Q. Teacher - (come) now.

  A. Teacher is coming now.
  Q. The baby - (sleep) now.
  A. The baby is sleeping now.
  Q. We - (eat) now.
  A. We are eating now.
  Q. I - (read) now.
  A. I am reading now.
  Q.She - (cry) now.
  A. She is crying now. 
  Q. Sujan - (write) now.
  A. Sujan is writing now.
  Q. Tamanna - (type) at this moment.
  A. Tamanna is typing at this moment.
  Q. They - (play) in the field at this moment.
  A. They are playing in the field  at this moment.
  Q. Mother - (cook) at this moment.
  A. Mother is cooking at this moment.
  Q. She - (sing) at this moment.
  A. She is singing at this moment.


Rule -4. Sentence এ যদি since morning, since monday অথবা for two days, for three hours ইত্যাদি সময়ের উল্লেখ থাকে তাহলে verb এর Present Perfect Continuous tense হয় । অর্থাৎ মূল Verb এর শেষে ing যোগ হয় এবং তার আগে  Sentence এর Subject অনুযায়ী have been বা has been এর যে কোন একটি বসে ।
 যেমন-

  Q. Laboni - (suffer) from fever for two days.
  A. Laboni has been suffering from fever for two days.
  Q. She - (read) in this School for three years.
  A. She has been reading in this School for three years.
  Q. They - (play) in the field for an hour.
  A. They have been playing in the field for an hour.
  Q. It - (rain) since morning.
  A. It has been raining since morning. 
  Q. They - (work) since afternoon.
  A. They have been working since afternoon. 

   Rule -5. Present Indefinite Tense এ Subject third person singular number হলে মূল Verb এর শেষে s বা es যোগ হয় ।
 যেমন-

   Q. He - (read) a book
   A. He reads a book.
   Q. She - (go) to School.
   A. She goes to School.
   Q. Papiya - (speak) loudly.
   A. Papiya speaks loudly.




ব্যাতিক্রম : Present Indefinite Tense এ Subject Third Person Singular Number হলেও যদি উক্ত Sentence টিতে can, must, should থাকে তাহলে can, must, should এর পরে Verb এর শেষে s বা es যোগ হয় না । 
যেমন-


  Q. She can (go) there.
  A. She can go there.
  Q. Shopon should (join) the meeting.
  A. Shopon should join the meeting.
  Q. Tisha must (reach) to office in time.
  A. Tisha must reach to office in time.





Rule -6. Sentence এ যদি চিরন্তন সত্য বা কাহারো অভ্যাসগত কাজ বুঝায় এবং এরূপ Sentence এর মূল Verb যদি be verb হয়, তাহলে Sentence এর Subject অনুযায়ী am / is / are এর যে কোন একটি বসবে । যেহেতু চিরন্তন সত্য বা কাহারো অভ্যাসগত কাজ বুঝালে Verb এর Present Indefinite Tense হয় ।
যেমন-


  Q. The Earth (be) round.
  A. The Earth is round.
  Q. Allah (be) almighty.
  A. Allah is almighty.
  Q. The rich (be) not always happy.
  A. The rich are not always happy.
  Q. The virtuous (be) happy.
  A. The virtuous are happy.
  Q. Flowers (be) gift of nature.
  A. Flowers are gift of nature.




Rule -7. Present Indefinite Tense এ কোন Sentence যদি Negative (না বোধক) হয়, তহলে Sentence এর Subject অনুযায়ী Subject এর পরে do বা does এর যে কোন একটি বসবে এবং তারপরে not বসবে। শুধুমাত্র Subject Third Person, Singular Number হলে does বসবে এবং অন্য সকল ক্ষেত্রে do বসবে ।
যেমন-




   Q. He not (go) to School.
   A. He does not go to School.
   Q. She not (eat) Orange.
   A. She does not eat Orange.
   Q. Niha not (write) a letter.
   A. Niha does not write a letter.
   Q. Shopon not (go) to the Cinema hall.
   A. Shopon does not go to the Cinema hall.
   Q. I not (play) Cricket.
   A. I do not play Cricket.
   Q. They not (play) football.
   A. They do not play football.
   Q. We not (swim) in the river.
   A. We do not swim in the river.




Rule -8. Present Indefinite Tense এ কোন Sentence যদি Interrogative (প্রশ্নবোধক) হয়, তাহলে Sentence এর Subject অনুযায়ী Subject এর পূর্বে do বা does এর যে কোন একটি বসবে । শুধুমাত্র Subject Third Person, Singular Number হলে does বসবে এবং অন্য সকল ক্ষেত্রে do বসবে ।
যেমন-



   Q. When he (come) here ?
   A. When does he come here ?
   Q. Farzana (go) to School regularly ?
   A. Does Farzana go to School regularly ?
   Q. When Tisha (read) ?
   A. When does Tisha read ?
   Q. When they (play) football ?
   A. When do they play football ?
   Q. When you (get up) from bed ?
   A. When do you get up from bed ?


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